Charles II is crowned king of Scotland on January 1, 1651 at Scone. Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on January 30, 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King of Great Britain and Ireland in Edinburgh on February 6, 1649, the English Parliament instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known as the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles at the Battle of Worcester on September 3, 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France.