Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie or the Young Pretender was born on December 31, 1720 in Rome, Italy. He was the second Jacobite pretender to the British throne. This claim was as the eldest son of James Francis Edward Stuart, himself the son of King James II. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, in which he led an insurrection to restore an absolute monarchy in England, which ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden that effectively ended the Jacobite cause. Charles's flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure. In 1759 he was involved in a French plan to invade the British Isles which was abandoned following British naval victories.